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Publication date: 16.04.2018
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Panov Vladimir Nikolaevich , candidate of historical sciences, docent , профессор
FSHEI "Russian Foreign Trade Academy of the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation" , Москва г

«Zemstvo constitutionalism in Russia (the second half of XIX – beginning of XX centuries)»

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The subject of this article is the problem of the origin and development of Zemstvo liberal movement in Russia, the causes and the main stages of its formation. The aim of the study is to study the formation and development of the liberal opposition Zemstvo movement in the post-reform period, the formation of political requirements and organizational design Zemstvo liberals, which resulted in the creation of political parties. The author of the article used the historical method of research, which allows to establish the cause-and-effect relationship of the process. As a result, the author came to the following conclusion: the Zemstvo liberal movement became a logical continuation of the traditions of Russian liberalism of the previous period of development of Russian socio-political thought, the formation of which was influenced by the idea of Western European constitutionalism. The main political demands of the Zemstvo liberal movement in Russia were: "freedom of speech and press, guarantees of the individual and the convening of the constituent Assembly." The Zemstvo liberal movement saw the realization of these ideas on the way of reforms from above. Therefore, the main form of their protest movement was written appeals (addresses) of Zemstvo self-government bodies to the authorities with a statement of their political wishes. To achieve their political goals Zemstvo liberals made repeated attempts to formalize their movement, which resulted in the creation of political parties in the early twentieth century. The political program of the Russian liberal movement had a significant impact on the evolution of the political system of Russia during the revolution of 1905-1907. and it was reflected in the Main state laws of the Russian Empire on April 23, 1096.