List of publications on a keyword: «interlinguistics»

Филология и лингвистика

Publication date: 28.01.2020
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Aiten S. Gumbatova , doctor of philosophical sciences
Baku State University , Azerbaijan

«The Main Types of Transformation»

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In this article, translation transformations as a means of ensuring the equivalence of texts. It is necessary to understand and take into account many different aspects: structure and text case, intentions and implications of the author and ways to express them, the time of writing, etc. All these issues affect the translation, its adequacy and equivalence. Adequacy is thus a relation between means and purpose, and is thereby process-oriented. Equivalence, on the other hand, is a relation between two products, the source and the receptor texts. At the sentence level, the most common transformations every translator makes are 1) omission, 2) addition, 3) transposition, 4) change of grammatical forms, 5) loss compensation, 6) concretization, 7) generalization 8) antonymic translation, 9) meaning extension, 10) metonymic translation, 11) sentence integration, and 12) sentence fragmentation. These transformations are caused by differences in the grammar and vocabulary of the source language (SL) and target language (TL). In order to avoid an inadequate translation, it is necessary to apply translating grammatical transformations. As a result, a literal translation is adapted to the standards of the language of translation and becomes adequate.